The child of the glorious sun of the Ikshvâku race, going to that quiet peaceful grove, reverently stood before the Muni, the great Rishi Arâda Râma, . 919

The dark-clad (?) followers of the Kalam (Saṅghârâma) seeing afar off Bodhisattva approaching, with loud voice raised a joyful chant, and with suppressed breath muttered 'Welcome,' . 920

As with clasped hands they reverenced him. Approaching one another, they made mutual enquiries; and this being done, with the usual apologies, according to their precedence (in age) 2 they sat down; . 921

The Brahmakârins observing the prince, (beheld) his personal beauty and carefully considered his

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appearance; respectfully 1 they satisfied themselves of his high qualities, like those who, thirsty, drink the 'pure dew.' . 922

(Then) with raised hands they addressed the prince, 'Have you 2 (or, may we know whether you have) been long an ascetic, divided from your family and broken from the bonds of love, like the elephant who has cast off restraint? . 923

'Full of wisdom (your appearance), completely enlightened, (you seem) well able to escape the poisonous fruit (of this world) 3. In old time the monarch Ming Shing  4 (brightly victorious) gave up his kingly estate to his son, . 924

'As a man who has carried a flowery wreath, when withered casts it away: but such is not your case, full of youthful vigour, and yet not enamoured with the condition of a holy king; . 925

'We see that your will is strong and fixed, capable of becoming a vessel of the true law, able to embark in the boat of wisdom, and to cross over the sea of life and death: . 926

'The common class 5, enticed to come to learn, their talents first are tested, then they are taught; but as I understand your case, your mind is already fixed and your will firm: . 927

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'And now you have undertaken the purpose of learning, (I am persuaded) you will not in the end shrink from it.' The prince hearing this exhortation, with gladness made reply: . 928

'You have with equal intention, illustrious 1! cautioned me with impartial mind; with humble heart I accept the advice, and pray that it may be so with me, (as you anticipate); . 929

'That I may in my night journey obtain a torch, to guide me safely thro’ treacherous places; a handy boat to cross over the sea;--may it be so even now with me! . 930

'But as I am somewhat in doubt and anxious to learn, I will venture to make known my doubts, and ask, with respect to old age, disease, and death, how are these things to be escaped?' . 931

At this time O-lo-lam (Arâda Kâlâma) hearing the question asked by the prince, briefly from the various Sûtras and Sâstras, quoted passages in explanation of a way of deliverance. . 932

'But thou (he said) illustrious youth! so highly gifted, and eminent among the wise! hear what I have to say, as I discourse upon the mode of ending birth and death; . 933

'Nature, and change, birth, old age, and death, these five (attributes) belong to all 2; "nature" is (in itself) 3 pure and without fault; the involution of this with the five elements 4, . 934

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'Causes an awakening and power of perception, which, according to its exercise 1, is the cause of "change;" form, sound, order, taste, touch, these are called the five objects of sense (dhâtu); . 935

'As the hand and foot are called the "two ways" (methods of moving?) so these are called "the roots" of action (the five skandhas); the eye, the ear, the nose, the tongue, the body, these are named the "roots" (instruments) of understanding. . 936

'The root of "mind" (manas) 2 is twofold, being both material, and also intelligent; "nature" by its involutions is "the cause," the knower of the cause is "I" (the soul); . 937

'Kapila the Rishi and his numerous followers, on this deep principle of "soul 3," practising wisdom (Buddhi), found deliverance. . 938

'Kapila and now Vâkaspati 4, by the power of "Buddhi" perceiving the character of birth, old age, and death, declare that on this is founded true philosophy 5; . 939

'Whilst all opposed to this, they say, is false. "Ignorance" and "passion," causing constant "transmigration," . 940

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'Abiding in the midst of these (they say) is the lot of "all that lives." Doubting the truth of "soul" is called "excessive doubt," and without distinguishing aright, there can be no method of escape. . 941

'Deep speculation as to the limits of perception is but to involve the "soul;" thus unbelief leads to confusion, and ends in differences of thought and conduct. . 942

'Again, the various speculations on "soul" (such as) "I say," "I know and perceive," "I come" and "I go" or "I remain fixed," these are called the intricacies (windings) of "soul" 1'