Sutra of the Past Vows of Earth Store Bodhisattva
CHAPTER 07: Benefiting the Living and the Dead
At that time Earth Store Bodhisattva, Mahasattva said to the Buddha, "World Honored One, I see that every single movement or stirring of thought on the part of beings of Jambudvipa is an offense. Beings tend to use up the wholesome benefits they gain; many of them end up retreating from their initial resolve. If they encounter evil conditions, they augment them with every thought.
They are like people trying to carry heavy rocks while walking through mud. Each step becomes more difficult and the rocks more cumbersome as their feet sink deeper. If they meet a mentor, he may be strong enough to lighten or even totally remove their burdens. Helping them thus, the mentor will urge them to step on solid ground, pointing out that once they reach a level place they should remain aware of that bad path and never traverse it again.
"World Honored One, the bad habits of beings range from minor to major. Since all beings have such habits, their parents or relatives should create blessings for them when they are on the verge of dying in order to assist them on the road ahead.
That may be done by hanging banners and canopies; lighting oil lamps; reciting the sacred Sutras; making offerings before the images of Buddhas or sages.
Another way to assist them is by reciting the names of Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, and Pratyekabuddhas so that the recitation of each name passes by the ear of the dying one and is heard in his fundamental consciousness.
"Suppose the evil karma created by beings were such that they should fall into the evil destinies. If their relatives cultivate wholesome causes on their behalf when they are close to death, then their manifold offenses can be dissolved.
If relatives can further do many good deeds during the first forty-nine days after the death of such beings, then the deceased can leave the evil destinies forever, be born as humans and gods, and receive supremely wonderful bliss. The surviving relatives will also receive limitless benefits.
"Therefore, before the Buddhas, World Honored Ones, as well as before the gods, dragons, and the rest of the Eightfold Division, humans and non-humans, I now exhort beings of Jambudvipa to be careful to avoid harming, killing, and doing other unwholesome deeds; to refrain from worshipping ghosts and spirits or making sacrifices to them; and to never call on mountain sprites on the day of death.
Why is that?
"Killing, harming, and making sacrifices are not the least bit helpful to the deceased. Such acts only bind up the conditions of offenses so that they grow ever more deep and heavy.
The deceased might have been due to increase his potential for Sagehood or gain birth among humans or gods in his next life or in the future. But when his family commits offenses in his name, he will resent the disasters he inherits, and his good rebirth will be delayed.
How much more would that be the case for people on the verge of death who during their lives had planted few good roots. Each offender has to undergo the bad destinies according to his own karma. How could anyone bear to have relatives add to that karma?
"That would be like having a neighbor add a few more things to a load of over a hundred pounds being carried by someone who had already traveled a long distance and who had not eaten for three days. By adding that extra weight, that person's burden would become even more unbearable.
"World Honored One, I see that beings of Jambudvipa will themselves receive the benefit of any good deeds they are able to do within the Buddha's teaching. That holds true even when the deeds are as small as a strand of hair, a drop of water, a grain of sand, or a mote of dust."
After that had been said, an Elder named Great Eloquence arose in the assembly. He had long since realized Non-production and was only appearing in the body of an Elder to teach and transform those in the Ten Directions.
Placing his palms together respectfully, he asked Earth Store Bodhisattva, "Great Lord, after people in Jambudvipa die and their close and distant relatives generate merit by making meal offerings and doing other such good deeds, will the deceased obtain merit and virtue significant enough to bring about their liberation?
Earth Store replied, "Elder, based on the awesome power of the Buddhas, I will now proclaim this principle for the sake of beings of the present and future.
Elder, if beings of the present and future when on the verge of dying hear the name of one Buddha, one Bodhisattva, or one Pratyekabuddha, they will attain liberation whether they have offenses or not.
"When men or women laden with offenses who failed to plant good causes die, even they can receive one-seventh of any merit dedicated to them by relatives who do good deeds on their behalf. The other six-sevenths of the merit will return to the living relatives who did the good deeds.
It follows that men and women of the present and future who cultivate while they are strong and healthy will receive every portion of the benefit derived."
"The arrival of the Great Ghost of Impermanence is so unexpected that the deceased ones' consciousnesses first roam in darkness and obscurity, unaware of offenses and blessings.
For forty-nine days they are as if deluded or deaf, or as if in courts where their karmic retributions are being decided. Once judgment is fixed, rebirths are undergone according to their karma.
In the time before rebirths are determined, the deceased suffer thousands of myriads of concerns. How much more is that the case for those who are to fall into the bad destinies.
"Throughout forty-nine days those whose lives have ended and who have not yet been reborn will be hoping every moment that their immediate relatives will earn blessings powerful enough to rescue them.
At the end of that time the deceased will undergo retribution according to their karma. If someone is an offender, he may pass through hundreds of thousands of years without even a day's liberation.
If someone's offenses deserve Fivefold Relentless Retribution, he will fall into the great hells and undergo incessant suffering throughout hundreds of thousands of eons."
"Moreover, Elder, when beings who have committed karmic offenses die, their relatives may prepare vegetarian offerings to aid them on their karmic paths.
In the process of preparing the vegetarian meal and before it has been eaten, rice-washing water and vegetable leaves should not be thrown on the ground. Before the food is offered to the Buddhas and Sangha no one should eat it.
If there is laxness or transgression in this matter, then the deceased will receive no strength from it.
If purity is vigorously maintained in making the offering to the Buddhas and Sangha, the deceased will receive one-seventh of the merit.
Therefore, Elder, by performing vegetarian offerings on behalf of deceased fathers, mothers, and other relatives while making earnest supplication on their behalf, beings of Jambudvipa benefit both the living and the dead."
After that was said, hundreds of thousands of millions of nayutas of ghosts and spirits of Jambudvipa who were in the palace of the Trayastrimsha Heaven, made the unlimited resolve to attain Bodhi.
The Elder Great Eloquence made obeisance and withdrew.
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