Mahayana Lankavatara Sutra

Translated into English by Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki

Chapter 1: Ravana Asking for Instruction

Om! Homage to the Triple Treasure! Homage to all the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas!

Thus have I heard. The Bhagavan once stayed in the Castle of Lanka, which is situated on the peak of Mount Malaya on the great ocean, and which is adorned with flowers made of jewels of various kinds. He was with a large assembly of Bhikshus(monks) and with a great multitude of Bodhisattvas, who had come together from various Buddha-lands. The Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas, headed by the Bodhisattva Maha-mati(Great Wisdom), were all perfect masters of the various Samadhis, the [tenfold] self-mastery, the [ten] powers, and the [six] psychic faculties; they were anointed by the hands of all the Buddhas; they all well understood the significance of the objective world as the manifestation of their own Heart; they knew how to maintain [various] forms, teachings, and disciplinary measures, according to the various mentalities and behaviours of beings; they were thoroughly versed in the five Dharmas, the [three] Svabhavas, the [eight] Vijnanas(consciousness), and the twofold non-Self.

At that time, the Bhagavan, who had been preaching in the palace of the Great Oceanic Dragon King, came out at the expiration of seven days and was greeted by an innumerable host of heavenly beings including Sakra, Brahma, and dragon kings. Looking at Lanka on Mount Malaya, the Bhagavan smiled and said, "By the Tathagatas of the past, who were Arhats and Fully-Enlightened Ones, this Truth was made the subject of their discourse, at that castle of Lanka on the mountain-peak of Malaya, -- the Truth realizable by noble wisdom in one's inmost self, which is beyond the reasoning knowledge of the philosophers as well as the state of consciousness of the Sravakas(Voice-hearers) and Pratyekabuddhas(Conditional-Awakeners). I, too, would now for the sake of Ravana, Overlord of the Yakshas, discourse on this Truth."
[Inspired] by the sacrosanct power of the Tathagata, Ravana, Lord of the Rakshasas, heard the Buddha's voice. Indeed, the Bhagavan, surrounded and accompanied by an in-numerable host of Sakra, Brahma, Guardian Gods, and heavenly dragons, came out of the palace of the Great Oceanic Dragon King; and looking at the waves of the ocean and also at the mental agitations going on in those assembled, [he thought of] the ocean of the Alaya-consciousness (Alaya-vijnana) where the evolving Vijanas [like the waves] are stirred by the wind of objectivity. While he was standing there [thus absorbed in contemplation, Ravana saw him and] uttered a joyous cry, saying: "I will go and request of the Buddha to enter into Lanka; for the long night [of transmigrations) he would probably profit, do good, and gladden the gods as well as human beings."

Thereupon, Ravana, Lord of the Rakshasas, with his attendants, riding in his floral celestial chariot, came up where the Buddha was, and having arrived there he and his attendants came out of the chariot. Walking around the Buddha three times from left to right, they played on a musical instrument, beating it with a stick of blue Indra (saphire), and hanging the lute at one side, which was inlaid with the choicest lapis lazuli and supported by [a ribbon of] priceless cloth, yellowish-white like jewels, they sang with various notes such as Saharshya, Rishabha, Gandhara, Dhaivata, Nishada. Madyama, and Kaisika, which were melodiously modulated in Grama, Murchana, etc.; the voice in accompaniment with the flute beautifully blended with the measure of the Gatha (verses):

"The truth-treasure whose principle is the self-nature of Mind, has no selfhood (nairatmyam), stands above all reasoning, and is free from impurities; it points to the knowledge attained in one's inmost self; Lord, show me here the way leading to the Truth.

2. "The Sugata is the body in whom are stored immaculate virtues; in him are manifested [bodies] trans-forming and transformed; he enjoys the Truth realised in his inmost self; may he visit Lanka. Now is the time, Muni!

3. "This Lanka was inhabited by the Buddhas of the past, and [they were] accompanied by their sons who were owners of many forms. Lord, show me now the highest Truth, and the Yakshas who are endowed with many forms will listen.¡±

Thereupon, Ravana, the Lord of Lanka, further adapting the Totaka rhythm sang this in the measure of the Gatha.

4. After seven nights, the Bhagavan leaving the ocean which is the abode of the Makara, the palace of the sea-king, now stands on the shore.

5. Just as the Buddha rises, Ravana, accompanied by the Apsaras and Yakshas numerous, by Suka, Sarana, and learned men,

6. Miraculously goes over to the place where the Lord is standing. Alighting from the floral vehicle, he greets the Tathagata reverentially, makes him offerings, tells him who he is, and stands by the Lord.

7. "I who have come here, am called Ravana, the ten-headed king of the Rakshasas, mayest thou graciously receive me with Lanka and all its residents.

8. "In this city, the inmost state of consciousness realised, indeed, by the Enlightened Ones of the past was disclosed on this peak studded with precious stones.

9. "Let the Bhagavan, too. surrounded by sons of the Victorious One, now disclose the Truth immaculate on this peak embellished with precious stones; we, together with the residents of Lanka, desire to listen.

10. "The Lankavatara Sutra which is praised by the Buddhas of the past [discloses] the inmost state of consciousness realized by them, which is not founded on any system of doctrine.

11. "I recollect the Buddhas of the past surrounded by sons of the Victorious One recite this Sutra; the Bhagavan, too, will speak.

12. "In the time to come, there will be Buddhas and Buddha-Sons pitying the Yakshas; the Leaders will discourse on this magnificent doctrine on the peak adorned with precious stones.

13. "This magnificent city of Lanka is adorned with varieties of precious stones, [surrounded] by peaks, refreshing and beautiful and canopied by a net of jewels.

14. "Bhagavan, here are the Yakshas who are free from faults of greed, reflecting on [the Truth] realized in one's inmost self and making offerings to the Buddhas of the past; they are believers in the teaching of the Mahayana and intent on disciplining one another.

15. "There are younger Yakshas, girls and boys, desiring to know the Mahayana. Come, Bhagavan, who art our Teacher, come to Lanka on Mount Malaya.

16. "The Rakshasas, with Kumbhakara at their head, who are residing in the city, wish, as they are devoted to the Mahayana, to hear about this inmost realization.

17. "They have made offerings assiduously to the Buddhas in the past and are to-day going to do the same. Come, for compassion's sake, to the Lanka, together with [thy] sons.

18. "Mahamati, accept my mansion, the company of the Apsaras, necklaces of various sorts, and the delightful Asoka garden.

19. "I give myself up to serve the Buddhas and their sons; there is nothing with me that I do not give up [for their sake]; Great Muni, have compassion on me!¡±

20. Hearing him speak thus, the Lord of the Triple World said, "King of Yakshas, this mountain of precious stones was visited by the Leaders in the past.

21. "And, taking pity on you, they discoursed on the Truth revealed in their inmost [consciousness]. [The Buddhas of] the future time will proclaim [the same] on this jewel-adorned mountain.

22. "This [inmost Truth] is the abode of those Yogins who stand in the presence of the Truth. King of the Yakshas, you have the compassion of the Sugatas and myself."

23. The Bhagavan accepting the request [of the King] remained silent and undisturbed; he now mounted the floral chariot offered by Ravana.

24. Thus Ravana and others, wise sons of the Victorious One, honoured by the Apsaras singing and dancing, reached the city.

25. Arriving in the delightful city [the Buddha was] again the recipient of honours; he was honoured by the group of Yakshas including Ravana and by the Yaksha women.

26. A net of jewels was offered to the Buddha by the younger Yakshas, girls and boys, and necklaces beautifully ornamented with jewels were placed by Ravana about the neck of the Buddha and those of the sons of the Buddha.

27. The Buddhas together with the sons of the Buddha and the wise men, accepting the offerings, discoursed on the Truth which is the state of consciousness realised in the inmost self.

28. Honouring [him as] the best speaker, Ravana and the company of the Yakshas honoured Mahamati and requested of him again and again:1

29. "Thou art the asker of the Buddha concerning the state of consciousness realized in their inmost selves, of which we here, Yakshas as well as the sons of the Buddha, are desirous of hearing. I, together with the Yakshas, the sons of the Buddha, and the wise men, request this of thee.

30. "Thou art the most eloquent of speakers, and the most strenuous of the Yogins; with faith I beg of thee. Ask [the Buddha] about the doctrine, O thou the proficient one!

31. "Free from the faults of the philosophers and Pratyeka-buddhas and Sravakas is the Truth of the inmost consciousness, immaculate and culminating in the stage of Buddhahood."

32. Thereupon the Bhagavan created jewel-adorned mountains and other objects magnificently embellished with jewels in an immense number.

33. On the summit of each mountain the Buddha himself was visible, and Ravana, the Yaksha, also was found standing there.

34. Thus the entire assembly was seen on each mountain-peak, and all the countries Were there, and in each there was a Leader.

35. Here also was the King of the Rakshasas and the residents of Lanka, and the Lanka created by the Buddha rivaling [the real one].

36. Other things were there, too, -- the Asoka with its shining woods, and on each mountain-peak Mahamati was making a request of the Buddha,

37. Who discoursed for the sake of the Yakshas on the Truth leading to the inmost realization; on the mountain-peak he delivered a complete sutra with an exquisite voice varied in hundreds of thousands of ways.

38. [After this] the teacher and the sons of the Buddha vanished away in the air, leaving Ravana the Yaksha himself standing [above] in his mansion.

39. Thought he, "How is this? What means this? and by whom was it heard? What was it that was seen? and by whom was it seen? Where is the city? and where is the Buddha?

40. "Where are those countries, those jewel-shining Buddhas, those Sugatas? Is it a dream then? or a vision? or is it a castle conjured up by the Gandharvas?

41. "Or is it dust in the eye, or a fata morgana, or the dream-child of a barren woman, or the smoke of a fire-wheel, that which I saw here?¡±

42. Then [Ravana reflected], "This is the nature as it is (dharmata) of all things, which belongs to the realm of Mind, and it is not comprehended by the ignorant as they are confused by every form of imagination.

43. "There is neither the seer nor the seen, neither the speaker nor the spoken; the form and usage of the Buddha and his Dharma -- they are nothing but discrimination.

44. "Those who see things such as were seen before, do not see the Buddha; [even] when discrimination is not aroused, one does not see1 the Buddha; the Buddha being fully-enlightened is seen where the world itself is not evolved.

The Lord of Lanka was then immediately awakened [from his reflection], feeling a revulsion (paravriti) in his Heart and realizing that the world was nothing but his own Heart: he was settled in the realm of non-discrimination, was urged by the stock of his past good deeds, acquired the cleverness of understanding all the texts, obtained the faculty of seeing things as they are, was no more dependent upon others, observed things excellently with his own wisdom (buddhi), gained the insight that was not of discursive reasoning, was no more dependent upon others, became a great Yogin of the discipline, was able to manifest himself in all excellent forms, got thoroughly acquainted with all skilful means, had the knowledge of the characteristic aspects of every stage, by which he would surmount it skillfully, was delighted to look into3 the self-nature of Citta, Manas, Manovijnana, got a view whereby he could cut himself loose from the triple continuation, had the knowledge of disposing of every argument of the philosophers on causation, thoroughly understood the Tathagata-garbha, the stage of Buddhahood, the inmost self, found himself abiding in the Buddha-knowledge; [when suddenly] a voice was heard from the sky, saying, "It is to be known by oneself.¡±

"Well done, well done, Lord of Lanka! Well done, indeed, Lord of Lanka, for once more! The Yogin is to discipline himself as thou doest. The Tathagatas and all things are to be viewed as they are viewed by thee; otherwise viewed, it is nihilism. All things are to be comprehended by transcending the Citta, Manas, and Vijnana as is done by thee. Thou shouldst look inwardly and not become attached to the letter and a superficial view of things; thou shouldst not fall into the attainments, conceptions, experiences, views, and Samadhis of the Sravakas, Pratyekabuddhas, and philosophers; thou shouldst not have any liking for small talk and witticism; thou shouldst not cherish the notion of self-substance, nor have any thought for the vainglory of rulership, nor dwell on such Dhyanas as belong to the six Dhyanas, etc.

"Lord of Lanka, this is the realization of the great Yogins: to destroy the discourses advanced by others, to crush mischievous views in pieces, to keep themselves properly away from ego-centered notions, to cause a revulsion in the depths of the mind fittingly by means of an exquisite knowledge. Such are sons of the Buddha who walk in the way of the Mahayana. In order to enter upon the stage of self-realisation as attained by the Tathagatas, the discipline is to be pursued by thee.

"Lord of Lanka, conducting thyself in this manner, let thee be further purified in the way thou hast attained; by disciplining thyself well in Samadhi and Samapatti, follow not the state realised and enjoyed by the Sravakas, Pratyekabuddhas, and philosophers, which rises from the imagination of those who discipline themselves according to the practices of the puerile philosophers. They cling to the individual forms of the world created by their egotistical ideas; they maintain such notions as element, quality, and substance; they cling tenaciously to views originating from ignorance; they become confused by cherishing the idea of birth where prevails emptiness; they cling to discrimination [as real]; they fall into the way of thinking where obtains [the dualism of] qualifying and qualified.

"Lord of Lanka, this is what leads to various excellent attainments, this is what makes one grow aware of the inmost attainment, this is the Mahayana realisation. This will result in the acquirement of an excellent condition of existence.

"Lord of Lanka, by entering upon the Mahayana discipline the veils [of ignorance] are destroyed, and one turns away from the multitudinous waves of the Vijnana and falls not into the refuge and practice of the philosophers.

"Lord of Lanka, the philosophers' practice starts from their own egotistic attachments. Their ugly practice arises from adhering to dualistic views concerning the self-nature of the Vijnana.

"Well done, Lord of Lanka; reflect on the signification of this as you did when seeing the Tathagata before; for this, indeed, is seeing the Tathagata."

At that time it occurred to Ravana: "I wish to see the Bhagavan again, who has all the disciplinary practices at his command, who has turned away from the practices of the philosophers, who is born of the state of realizations in the inmost consciousness, and who is beyond [the dualism of] the transformed and the transforming. He is the knowledge realized by the Yogins, he is the realization attained by those who enjoy the perfect bliss of the Samadhi which they gain by coming to an intuitive understanding through meditation. May I see thus [again] the Compassionate One by means of his miraculous powers in whom the fuel of passion and discrimination is destroyed, who is surrounded by sons of the Buddha, who has penetrated into the minds and thoughts of all beings, who moves about everywhere, who knows everything, who keeps himself away from work (kriya) and form (lakshana); seeing him may I attain what I have not yet attained, [retain] what I have already gained, may I conduct myself with non-discrimination, abide in the joy of Samadhi and Samapatti, and attain the ground where the Tathagatas walk, and in these make progress."

At that moment, the Bhagavan recognizing that the Lord of Lanka is to attain the Anutpattika-dharma-kshanti (Uncreated-Dharma-Forbearance) showed his glorious compassion for the ten-headed one by making himself visible once more on the mountain-peak studded with many jewels and enveloped in a net-work of jewels. The ten-headed King of Lanka saw the splendour again as seen before on the mountain-peak, [he saw] the Tathagata, who was the Arhat and the Fully-Enlightened One, with the thirty-two marks of excellence beautifully adorning his person, and also saw himself on each mountain-peak, together with Mahamati, in front of the Tathagata, the Fully-Enlightened One, putting forward his discourse on the realization experienced by the Tathagata in his inmost self, and, surrounded by the Yakshas, conversing on the verbal teachings and stories [of the Buddha]. Those [Buddha]-lands were seen with the Leaders.1

Then the Bhagavan beholding again this great assembly with his wisdom-eye, which is not the human eye, laughed loudly and most vigorously like the lion-king. Emitting rays of light from the tuft of hair between the eyebrows, from the ribs, from the loins, from the Srivatsa on the breast, and from every pore of the skin, ¡ªemitting rays of light which shone flaming like the fire taking place at the end of a kalpa, like a luminous rainbow, like the rising sun, blazing brilliantly, gloriously -- which were observed from the sky by Sakra, Brahma, and the guardians of the world, the one who sat on the peak [of Lanka] vying with Mount Sumeru laughed the loudest laugh. At that time the assembly of the Bodhisattvas together with Sakra and Brahma, each thought within himself:

"For what reason, I wonder, from what cause does the Blessed One who is the master of all the world (sarva-dharma-vasavartin), after smiling first, laugh the loudest laugh? Why does he emit rays of light from his own body? Why, emitting [rays of light], does he remain silent, with the realizations [of the Truth] in his inmost self, and absorbed deeply and showing no surprise in the bliss of Samadhi, and reviewing the [ten] quarters, looking around like the lion-king, and thinking only of the discipline, attainment, and performance of Ravana?"

At that time, Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva who was previously requested by Ravana [to ask the Buddha concerning his self-realizations], feeling pity on him, and knowing the minds and thoughts of the assembly of the Bodhisattvas, and observing that beings to be born in the future would be confused in their minds because of their delight in the verbal teaching (desanapatha), because of their clinging to the letter as [fully in accordance with] the spirit (artha), because of their clinging to the disciplinary powers of the Sravakas, Pratyekabuddhas, and philosophers, -- which might lead them to think how it were that the Tathagatas, the Bhagavans, even in their transcendental state of consciousness should burst out into loudest laughter -- Mahamati the Bodhisattva asked the Buddha in order to put a stop to their inquisitiveness the following question: "For what reason, for what cause did this laughter take place?"

Said the Bhagavan: "Well done, well done, Mahamati! Well done, indeed, for once more, Mahamati! Viewing the world as it is in itself and wishing to enlighten the people in the world who are fallen into a wrong view of things in the past, present, and future, thou undertakest to ask me the question. Thus should it be with the wise men who want to ask questions for both themselves and others. Ravana, Lord of Lanka, O Mahamati, asked a twofold question of the Tathagatas of the past who are Arhats and perfect Buddhas; and he wishes now to ask me too a twofold question in order to have its distinction, attainment, and scope ascertained -- this is what is never tasted by those who practice the meditation of the Sravakas, Pratyekabuddhas, and philosophers; and the same will be asked by the question-loving ten-headed one of the Buddhas to come."

Knowing that, the Bhagavan said to the Lord of Lanka, thus: "Ask, thou Lord of Lanka; the Tathagata has given thee permission [to ask], delay not, whatever questions thou desirest to have answered, I will answer each of them with judgment to the satisfaction of your heart. Keeping thy seat of thought free from [false] discrimination, observe well what is to be subdued at each stage; ponder things with wisdom; [seeing into] the nature of the inner principle in thyself, abide in the bliss of Samadhi; embraced by the Buddhas in Samadhi, abide in the bliss of tranquillization; going beyond the Samadhi and understanding attained by the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas, abide in [the attainment of the Bodhisattvas] in the stages of Acala, Sadhumati, and Dharmamegha; grasp well the egolessness of all things in its true significance; be anointed by the Buddhas in Samadhi at the great palace of lotus-jewels. 1Surrounded by the Bodhisattvas who are sitting on lotuses of various sorts each supported by the gracious power of the Buddhas, thou shalt find thyself sitting on a lotus and each one of the Bodhisattvas looking at thee face to face. This is a realm beyond the imagination. Thou shouldst plan out an adequate plan and establish thyself at a stage of discipline by planning out such a plan as shall include [all kinds of] skilful means, so that thou comest to realize that realm which is beyond imagination; and thou shouldst attain the stage of Tathagatahood in which one is able to manifest oneself in various forms, and which is something never seen before by the Sravakas, Pratyekabuddhas, philosophers, Brahma, Indra, Upendra, and others."

At that moment the Lord of Lanka being permitted by the Bhagavan, rose from his seat on the peak of the jewel-mountain which shone like the jewel-lotus immaculate and shining in splendour; he was surrounded by a large company of celestial maidens, and all kinds of garlands, flowers, perfumes, incense, unguents, umbrellas, banners, fiags, necklaces, half-necklaces, diadems, tiaras, and other ornaments whose splendour and excellence were never heard of or seen before, were created; music was played surpassing anything that could be had by the gods, Nagas, Yakshas, Rakshasas, Gandharvas, Kinnaras, Mahoragas, and men; musical instruments were created equal to anything that could be had in all the world of desire and also such superior musical instruments were created as were to be seen in the Buddha-lands; the Bhagavan and the Bodhisattvas were enveloped in a net of jewels; a variety of dresses and high banners was made rising high in the air as high as seven tala trees to great [the Buddha], showering great clouds of offerings, playing music which resounded [all around], and then descending from the air, [the Lord of Lanka] sat down on the peak of the jewel-mountain ornamented with magnificent jewel-lotus whose splendour was second only to the sun and lightning. Sitting he made courtesy smiling first to the Bhagavan for his permission and proposed him a twofold question: " It was asked of the Tathagatas of the past, who were Arhats, Fully-Enlightened Ones, and it was solved by them. Bhagavan, now I ask of thee; [the request] will certainly be complied with by thee as far as verbal instruction is concerned1 as it was by the Buddhas [of the past]. Bhagavan, duality was discoursed upon by the Transformed Tathagatas and Tathagatas of Trans-formation, but not by the Tathagatas of Silence.2 The Tathagatas of Silence are absorbed in the blissful state of Samadhi, they do not discriminate concerning this state, nor do they discourse on it. Bhagavan, thou assuredly wilt discourse on this subject of duality. Thou art thyself a master of all things, an Arhat, a Tathagata. The sons of the Buddha and myself are anxious to listen to it."

The Bhagavan said, "Lord of Lanka, tell me what you mean by duality?"

The Lord of the Rakshasas, who was renewed in his ornaments, full of splendour and beauty, with a diadem, bracelet, and necklace strung with vajra thread, said, "It is said that even dharmas are to be abandoned, and how much more adharmas. Bhagavan, why does this dualism exist that we are called upon to abandon? What are adharmas (non-dharma)? and what are dharmas? How can there be a duality of things to abandon -- a duality that arises from falling into discrimination, from discriminating self-substance where there is none, from [the idea of] things created (bhautika) and uncreated, because the non-differentiating nature of the alayavijnana is not recognized? Like the seeing of a hair-circle as really existing in the air, [the notion of dualism] belongs to the realm of intellection not exhaustively pur-gated. This being the. case as it should be, how could there be any abandonment [of dharmas and adharmas]?"

Said the Bhagavan, "Lord of Lanka, seest thou not that the differentiation of things, such as is perceived in jars and other breakable objects whose nature it is to perish in time, takes place in a realm of discrimination [cherished by] the ignorant? This being so, is it not to be so understood? It is due to discrimination [cherished by] the ignorant that there exists the differentiation of dharma and adharma. Noble wisdom (aryajnana), however, is not to be realised by seeing [things this way]. Lord of Lanka, let it be so with the ignorant who follow the particularised aspect of existence that there are such objects as jars, etc., but it is not so with the wise. One flame of uniform nature rises up depending on houses, mansions, parks, and terraces, and burns them down; while a difference in the flames is seen according to the power of each burning material which varies in length, magnitude, etc. This being so, why is it not to be so understood? The duality of dharma and adharma thus comes into existence. Not only is there seen a fire-flame spreading out in one continuity and yet showing a variety of flames, but from one seed, Lord of Lanka, are produced, also in one continuity, stems, shoots, knots, leaves, petals, flowers, fruit, branches, all individualized. As it is with every external object from which grows [a variety of] objects, so also with internal objects. From ignorance there develop the Skandhas, Dhatus, ayatanas, with all kinds of objects accompanying, which grow out in the triple world where we have, as we see, happiness, form, speech, and behaviour, each differentiating [infinitely]. The oneness of the Vijnana is grasped variously according to the evolution of an objective world; thus there are seen things inferior, superior, and middling, things defiled and free from defilement, things good and bad. Not only, Lord of Lanka, is there such a difference of conditions in things generally, there is also seen a variety of realisations attained innerly by each Yogin as he treads the path of discipline which constitutes his practice. How much more difference in dharma and adharma do we not see in a world of particulars which is evolved by discrimination? Indeed, we do.

"Lord of Lanka, the differentiation of dharma and adharma comes from discrimination. Lord of Lanka, what are dharmas? That is, they are discriminated by the discriminations cherished by the philosophers, Sravakas, Pratyekabuddhas, and ignorant people. They think that the dharmas headed by quality and substance are produced by causes¡ª[these are the notions] to be abandoned. Such are not to be regarded [as real] because they are appearances (lakshana). It comes from one's clinging [to appearances] that the manifestations of his own Mind are regarded as reality (dharmata). Such things as jars, etc., are products of discrimination conceived by the ignorant, they exist not; their substances are not attainable. The viewing of things from this viewpoint is known as their abandonment.

"What, then, are adharmas? Lord of Lanka, [dharmas] are unattainable as to their selfhood, they are not appearances born of discrimination, they are above causality; there is in them no such [dualistic] happening as is seen as reality and non-reality. This is known as the abandoning of dharmas. What again is meant by the unattainability of dharmas? That is, it is like horns of a hare, or an ass, or a camel, or a horse, or a child conceived by a barren woman. They are dharmas the nature of which is unattainable; they are not to be thought [as real] because they are appearances. They are only talked About in popular parlance if they have any sense at all; they are not to be adhered to as in the case of jars, etc. As these [unrealities] are to be abandoned as not comprehensible by the mind (vijnana), so are things (bhava) of discrimination also to be abandoned. This is called the abandoning of dharmas and adharmas. Lord of Lanka, your question as to the way of abandoning dharmas and adharmas is hereby answered.

"Lord of Lanka, thou sayest again that thou hast asked [this question] of the Tathagatas of the past who were Arhats and Fully-Enlightened Ones and that it was solved by them. Lord of Lanka, that which is spoken of as the past belongs to discrimination; as the past is thus a discriminated [idea], even so are the [ideas] of the future and the present. Because of reality (dharmata) the Tathagatas do not discriminate, they go beyond discrimination and futile reasoning, they do not follow the individuation-aspect of forms (r¨±pa) except when [reality] is disclosed for the edification of the unknowing and for the sake of their happiness.1 It is by transcendental wisdom (prajna) that the Tathagata performs deeds transcending forms (animittacara); therefore, what constitutes the Tathagatas in essence as well as in body is wisdom (jnana). They do not discriminate, nor are they discriminated. Wherefore do they not discriminate the Manas? Because discrimination is of the self, of soul, of personality. How do they not discriminate? The Manovijnana is meant for the objective world where causality prevails as regards forms, appearances, conditions, and figures. Therefore, discrimination and non-discrimination must be transcended.

"Lord of Lanka, beings are appearances, they are like figures painted on the wall, they have no sensibility [or consciousness]. Lord of Lanka, all that is in the world is devoid of work and action because all things have no reality, and there is nothing heard, nothing hearing. Lord of Lanka, all that is in the world is like an image magically transformed. This is not comprehended by the philosophers and the ignorant. Lord of Lanka, he who thus sees things, is the one who sees truthfully. Those who see things otherwise walk in discrimination; as they depend on discrimination, they cling to dualism. It is like seeing one's own image reflected in a mirror, or one's own shadow in the water, or in the moonlight, or seeing one's shadow in the house, or hearing an echo in the valley. People grasping their own shadows of discrimination uphold the discrimination of dharma and adharma and, failing to carry out the abandonment of the dualism, they go on discriminating and never attain tranquility, By tranquility is meant oneness (ekagra), and oneness gives birth to the highest Samadhi, which is gained by entering into the womb of Tathagatahood, which is the realm of noble wisdom realized in one's inmost self."

(End of Chapter 1)

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